Water safety is a major focus of microbiological testing of Water. Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. Most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water are Cholera, Typhoid fever and Bacillary dysentery.
In general terms, the greatest microbial risks are associated with ingestion of water that is contaminated with human or animal feces. Wastewater discharges in fresh waters and coastal sea waters are the major source of fecal microorganisms, including pathogens. Hence, microbiological testing of Water becomes most important.